Error Analysis of Simulated Einstein Rings under the Membrane Paradigm
by Stefan von Weber and Alexander von Eye
Einstein rings belong to the most impressive optical phenomena of astronomy. We simulated such rings, respectively, parts of such rings, under the membrane paradigm. The membrane paradigm uses the cosmological model of a 3D elastic membrane spanned in a 4D bulk space. A homogenous vector field acts perpendicularily on this membrane and causes, in addition to other effects, gravitation and dark matter. The Cosmic Membrane Theory (CMT) yields directly Newton’s law of universal gravitation, and is able to explain gravitation itself as well as all gravitational effects as light bending, the perihelion precession, gravitational waves, and the De Sitter precession (also called geodesic precession). The simulations cover Einstein rings inside and outside the image of the lensing galaxy, and take into account rotational angles of the lensing galaxy. Statistical error analysis is used to decompose residuals into errors and artifacts that are due to the methods of simulation.
Stefan von Weber, email@example.com
Alexander von Eye, firstname.lastname@example.org
Graf, R. G.,email@example.com
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